Giji Ryoushi.
In the past there was a miracle that allowed the materialization of the soul. But this technique was lost in the Great Collapse of the 1970s. After that, magi, who were faced with the end of magic (and thus the end of “magus”) turned to modern technology and used it to redefine how humans thought of “the soul.”
This is the research that ended up as “Magic Theory of Pseudo-Spiritrons” which revealed the “output of one’s consciousness.”
Before, consciousness was thought to only manifest through a physical body. But magi managed to measure the position of “the soul” and redirect its output into a new world; the cyber world. They succeeded in allowing one to create a digital copy of themselves (a bunshin).
After this magi could transfer themselves into the digital world and carry out higher level information gathering.
The soul is a energy body that resides in a higher dimension, and is actually an unbelievably excellent information medium.
After the announcement and presentation of this theory, in the new world the only technologies that advanced any further than their present state were network related technologies, which developed greatly.
The military industrial complex put a freeze on the development of real world weapons, and turned to developing effective cyber attacks.

Translator’s Notes
  1. ^ Also known as “Virtual Spiritron” or “Pseudo Spirit Particle.”
Fate/EXTRA Material: Encyclopedia of Fate/EXTRA